The history of Western philosophy begins with a group called the Pre-Socratics. At least, the philosophy of the Pre-Socratics is the earliest recorded/mentioned works of philosophy that exists. They studied nature and used their imagination to conjure up explanations on how natural events occurred. Their observations were often very astute. Many of their ideas contained bits of truth. Their ingenuity of thought blazed a trail for Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and many philosophers thereafter.
The interesting thing about early philosophy is that the very first things they contemplated slowly evolved and matured into entirely new fields of study: biology, meteorology, atomic theory. Now, the findings within those fields are considered fact, written in textbooks, and taught in schools. Not all of the subjects that the ancient philosophers inspected, however, have entered into the canons of knowledge.
After several generations of close inspection, political theory has yet to find a solid foundation of rules that can make predictions and determine the best course of government. From Plato’s idea of a “philosopher-king,” to social contract theory, to Marxism, there has not been one political ideology that has been the perfect measure of government. As the centuries unfolded, empires dissolved; revolutionaries overthrew monarchies. Now, American democracy debates over how much government is too much or too little.
Every step forward in political theory is a step toward achieving the perfect world, utopia. Every step brings its own innovations, but not one of these ideas has satiated that desire for perfection.
Coming up with an effective method of government requires a brilliant individual or group of individuals. The problem is that every single idea works well only in an ideal world or situation. So, it stands to reason that a perfect world cannot be achieved from any current political theory. Each theory necessitates highly rational, entirely capable, incorruptible human beings.
So, how can a political system be put into place that understands and compensates for the inherent selfish nature that eventually creeps into every form of government? If someone could answer that question, that would be perfect.